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Few words about High Courts in India:
The unitary classification of judicial system of India consists of Supreme Court of India which is the central and highest level judiciary for the whole country, along with the 21 High Courts which are at the state level. It is over the state or in a union territory and in some cases over a group of states together with union territories that these courts have their jurisdiction. The subordinate courts like the criminal courts, civil courts, and family courts, and several other lower District courts come down in the order of hierarchy under the High Courts. It is under the Article 214, Chapter V, Part VI as envisaged in the Indian constitution that the high courts were constituted during the formation of the judiciary.
The highest civil court of a state is the High Court, with District Courts as subordinate courts. The role of the High Court in regards to its civil as well as criminal jurisdiction come into play, when the subordinate courts are not qualified, which means they are not authorised by legal rules, to solve the case due to lack of territorial jurisdiction. In certain specifically designated cases like the company law cases, High Courts may also exercise the original laid down rules of jurisdiction in designated matters as well as in some Federal law matters.
The working of the High Court mainly, of a state, is to get the appeals from subordinate courts and the writ petitions related to the Article No. 226 of the Indian Constitution. Also the writ Jurisdiction serves as the original jurisdiction for the High Court. Each High Court of individual state has its different pre-defined territorial jurisdiction.
From the judiciary point of view, each state of India is divided clearly into different judicial districts with District and Sessions Judge. Such a designated judge is regarded as the District Judge designate, when presiding over civil cases, and as Sessions Judge while considering the criminal cases. The highest authorised judicial under a Judge of the High Court is the district and sessions judge. There are different courts dealing with civil jurisdiction with different names in various states under him in the hierarchy.
All the Courts including the High Courts, compulsorily obey the judgements and the orders as given by the Supreme Court India, according to the Article 141 of the Indian Constitution.
President of India along with Chief Justice of India and in recommendations by the governor of the respective states, appoint the Judges of a High Court in a state. Every High Court is headed by one Chief Justice. According to the Indian order of precedence, the Chief Justices have been given rank #14 and rank #17 in their state and other states respectively. With a calculation where the average institutional cases in the last five years is divided by taking average at national level, or the calculated average rate at which the main cases with regards to an individual judge per year are disposed in that particular high court, the number of judges in a court is decided, whichever is higher.
High Courts by state/union territory
There are 21 High Courts classified according to year of establishment, Act according to which that particular high court was established, level of governance, jurisdiction, benches or branches, and finally as per the highest number of judges sanctioned, and are enlisted below.
High Courts In India