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Originating from a small village called Hajgoli in the central Indian state of Maharashtra; the Chapora is a river in the Indian state of Goa. The river is located in the northernmost part of Goa. Originating from a small village in Maharashtra called Hajgoli near the town of Belgaum, the river Chapora flows through Tilari ghat and then enters Goa. Flowing into the Arabian sea of the Indian Ocean, towards the south of the river is Vagator Beach. Resting at the mouth of the Chapora River is Chapora, a working fishing harbor. The river Chapora along with the river Terekhol originate in Maharashtra and form an integral part of life in Goa due to their irrigation facilities, agriculture. They also provide coastal resources, transportation of mining ores as well as providing portability.
Chapora is a small picturesque coastal village known for its fishing at Chapora river bank, lying along a beach stretch in Northern Goa. It is approximately 10km from the Northern Goan city of Mapusa and is close to Chapora Fort. The Fort is located on the site of an ancient Fort built by Adil Shah, thus giving the Fort its original name of Shah-pora (now called Chapora). During colonization, the Portuguese rebuilt Chapora Fort into the structure it is today, around the year 1717. The river Chapora can be seen from the Fort, with views across and along the river facing the North. The village is situated under the old ruins of the Portugese Chapora Fort. To the right bank of the Chapora rives lies the Fort of Arabo, towards the south-east of Pernem, it faces the Colvalle at Bardez.
Goa comprises of five major rivers. These are the Mandovi, the Zuari, the Terekhol, the Sal and the Chapora River. Chapora beach is rocky with stretches of unmarred sands in between. The beach is located on the mouth of the Chopdem River on its Southern bank. The beach is located 22 kilometres from Panaji and 8 kilometres from the river Mapusa. The Chapora river divides the Northern Goan towns of Pernem and Bardez.
The Chapora River is also known as The Kolval. Comparisons between aerial photographs taken of Chapora River in 1970 and in 1999 reveal that some alteration of the landscape has taken place. The geomorphic and natural features are largely undisturbed. However, moving towards the southern direction, the mouth of the river Chapora has become significantly narrower and shallower due to siltation and this has occurred at a rapid rate.
The Chapora River rises in Ramghat at Maneri and following a zigzag course, demarcates the border of Pedne, Bardesh and Dicholi for approximately 21 kilometers. It then reaches the Arabian Sea near Chapora. Its lower reaches exhibit features of a drowned topography. The port of Chapora is seasonal in character and caters to country rafts, trawlers and other small vessels.
An increase in water pollution in recent years has led to an increase in sand bars, which occur due to soil deposits on the river bed around the mouth of the river. This affects the smooth navigation of vessels meant for fishing. Experts say that if dredging is not carried out in a proper scientific manner to cure the water, it could possibly lead to the erosion of the coastline and eventually change the entire course of the Chapora River.
The rivers of Goa are unique in that they have a much deeper tidal influence. All the rivers on this belt from north south (Chapora, Baga, Mandovi etc.) have a course that is influences by the west coast geological fault.
A tributary is a freshwater stream that feeds into a larger stream, river or other body of water. Chapora doesn’t have any tributaries big enough to have been given an official name. If the Portuguese, during colonization, succeeded in connecting the tributary to the Chapura River near Colvale (through Tivium), the canal would have proved a lifeline to the eastern part of the Bardez area and helped with trade and commerce. However, lack of financial ability didn’t allow the project to proceed more than a little bit beyond the riverside church of St. Christophers near river Chapora, before the project was abandoned.