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It spreads between latitudes 23 degree 25’N and 24 degree 35’N and longitudes 86 degree 15’E and 88 degree15’E. The river system begins in the lower hills of Deoghar in the Santhal Pargana District of the state of Jharkhand.
The upper part of the river Ajay flows through hilly areas comprised of laterite soil. The river meets the alluvial soil area at Ausgram in the district of Bardhman.
The valley of the Ajay River is heavily covered with forests of varied types of trees. One will find trees such as the sal, piyasal and the palash. However, mining and other commercial activities have left the forest denude. The catchment of the river Ajay is about 6000 km.
As per the records in the history of ancient India, there was a river called Amystis moved past a town named Katadupa. This was during the era of Megasthenes, as mentioned by McKindle. Another historian Wilfred is of the opinion that the same ancient river Amystis, is today’s Ajay River. Recent excavations have exposed the remains of an old civilization, very much the same as the Indus Valley Civilization. This was discovered at Pandu Rajar Dhibi, in the lower Ajay valley.
The bridge at Fatehpur in Chittaranjan joins Chittaranjan with the neighbouring state of Jharkhand. In the 2000, in the month of September, the bridge was completely destroyed by the over flowing Ajay river. The bridge was later repaired.
This bridge is the life line for the poor villagers of the state of Jharkhand. They travel to Chittaranjan daily for their livelihood. They find the bridge as a boon during the monsoon, when the Ajay is overflowing. It becomes almost impossible to cross over to Chittaranjan.
Only two-wheeler riders and pedestrians are allowed to use the bridge, because of its narrow width. The Indian railways had constructed this bridge.
There is yet another bridge in the district of Bardhman, in Pandaveswar, in the state of West Bengal. The geographical coordinates of this bridge is as follows- 23 degree north, 87 degree 16’36 east.
The flood problem is centred around those areas that are on the southern bank of lower Ajay River. Regular floods are seen under Illambazar. Especially, after the union point of the Hinglo River. The areas here have always been under attacks of floods.
Ketugram, Nanoor, Mangalkot and part of Katwa. Then geomorphology, hydro-geology and channel geometry are causes for floods. The damage is also caused by the river Kunur. The main right bank tributary of the Ajay River that overflows its banks.
From its starting point, the river flows through Jharkhand and enters the state of West Bengal. At a place called Simjuri, close to Chittaranjan, an industrial place in the state of West Bengal.
The river first, makes a boundary between the Bardhamam district of the state of West Bengal and the state of Jharkhand. From there, it forms a border between the Bardhaman district and the Birbhum district. Both belong to the state of West Bengal. Eventually, in its final lap of the journey, the river enters the Katwa subdivision of the Bardhaman district. At a village called Nareng. This village falls under the jurisdiction of the Ketugram police station. It then flows into the Bhagirathi River.
The total journey covered by the river is about 288km. Out of which 152 km is inside the state if West Bengal.
The principal tributaries of the Ajay River are Jayanti and Pathro in the state of Jharkhand. Kunur and Tumuni are in the district of Bardhaman of the state of West Bengal.