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The famous Babri Mosque is located in the city of Ayodhya that comes under the district of Faizabad which is located in the state of Uttar Pradesh. This mosque is the oldest mosque and it is having a way long history which makes the mosque historical in front of most of the people. The very memorable incident happened to the place is in 1992 when it was demolished by a group of people and it was a political issue that converted into a riot that killed large number of people from both Muslims and Hindu communities. The flame of this riot is not limited to one city but it developed in other cities too and it killed various people in Delhi and Mumbai itself. It all happened against the commitment of Supreme Court of India that the mosque will not be harmed.
The mosque was constructed as per the orders of Babur in 1527. It is the largest mosque in the Uttar Pradesh not only because of the area but also because of the importance of the place. This is the place where Hindu devotees also reside and the place is also known as the place where Lord Rama was born. The whole debate between both communities is known as Ayodhya Debate.
There was a history associated with the mosque that the Mughal emperor Babur ruled over the country and he defeated the Rana Sangram who was a Hindu king who resides in Chittodagarh and he was from Rajputana Kingdom. He defeated in the battle of Khandwa. After the victory, he appointed his general, Mir Baqshi as the governor of Awadh and those areas which are around Awadh.
Mir Bakshi constructed the Babri Majid and dedicated it to Babur. There was belief that he constructed the mosque after demolishing the palace where Lord Ram was born. There was a temple of same god to which people use to worship. The amazing thing is that there is no proper evidence available for a person in Muslim religion as it is not refereed in the Baburnuma, a diary of Babur. The pages of those incidents are missing and this is the reason why the proper evidence is not available. Although, the incident was there that many Hindu Temples were demolished in Chanderi by him.
The only evidence that a person may get about the Hindu temple at that area was through the inscription of one thick stone that was discovered in the demolished structure in riots of ’92. There were various other evidences that people collected from that demolished part. These things were inscription on the slab that was discovered, Shlokas and other things that were written in Sanskrit and also in Nagari Lipi, which was very popular in the twelfth century among the people. There were various people who were scholars, Sanskrit scholars, epigraphic and other people who searched these things and found the proper evidence for a person through which it may be possible for a person to know that there was a temple prior to the mosque. Apart from this, there were various archaeologists who proved the things right.
The written documents were written by Govind Chandra Garhwal who was the ruler of that dynasty. It was having praise words about the Hindu Lord, Vishnu and about the Lord Ram. He constructed the temple using pillars and other artistic things. It was also having a sphere of gold. This was the grand temple and no other ruler of any dynasty or of any time built a better temple than this one. It also states that the temple was constructed in the city of Ayodhya. The remaining of the temple was demolished to construct the mosque. Justice, Dharam V. Sharma was headed the evidence in the Lucknow Bench of Allahabad high Court. These all evidences were produced to him by the Archaeological Survey of India.
The judges saw all the 265 evidences and told to them that they were found under the eleventh or twelfth century and declared that the mosque was prior to it was the Hindu Temple and declared the thing that it was broken to made the mosque. They all said that there is no room to say that the things were lying or the evidences were wrong.
The other religion that came into action among the mosque was Jain and the main religious group Jain Samata vahini declared the thing that the demolished building was just look like the Jain temple which was constructed during the sixth century. It was headed by Sohan Mehta, who was the General Secretary of the religious group claimed that the demolished structure was of the Jain temple which was ancient in nature. They told through the evidences which he got from ASI. He restricted the High Court of Allahabad to settle the dispute among the Babri Masjid and Ram janam Bhoomi until the things were proved by him came to a result. Mehta showed the writings of the 18th century monks and told that Ayodhya is that same place where 5 Jain Monks stayed. It was also known as the five biggest places for Jain and Buddhist pilgrims as per the sources before 1527.
The Muslims from all parts of the state proved that the place was not having any kind of existence of any temple or if the temple was constructed to that place then Mir Baqi constructed the mosque, the temple was erected. The matter was happened in the year 1949 when the Ram idols were placed in the mosque allegedly and at that time, prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru wrote a letter to the chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, GB Pant and demanded the removal of those idols from that place as it would leave a bad impression on both the communities that will give rise to a riot. The local administrator and deputy commissioner of Faizabad at that time denied the orders sent to him by Nehru. The High court gave the two third of the land area to Hindu as per the evidences that were presented to them by the ASI and other people who were having importance in this case.
The Muslims dismissed the saying of the court but however various hindu political parties welcomed the decision from the court and these religious parties were Vishva Hindu parishad, Hindu Munnani, RSS and many more. On the other side, the Muslim group and The Safdar Hashmi Memorial trust told to media that the evidences that were shown to court by ASI may possibly say that there must be a Hindu temple but they may not deny this fact that the place was having a mosque as well prior to the erection.
As per the British sources, Babur gained mush populariry after defeating large number of Hindu ruler in northern India and the he conquered the Lodhi of Afghan house and occupied certain things like Central Doab and Oudh. He proceeded to Agra after winning the battle of Panipat. He conquered the eastern states of united provinces. In the year 1527, Babur came back from the central part of the country after defeating one more ruler in Kannauj. He passed through the way of Ayodhya and constructed a mosque over that place. It was constructed in the year 1528 and as per the sources it was built on the birth place of Ram. However, after the death of Babur, the Afghans came in to protest against this thing in 1530 but were defeated in Lucknow in the same year.
Those rulers who ruled on the country and those who belong to the Mughal Empire were having fond of Art and Entertainment especially to those who were the rulers in Sultanate of Delhi. They gave preference to architecture in those buildings which they constructed. They constructed large number of buildings in which tombs and pillars were of great quality and they built various madarsas, mosques in same nature. They all were having distinctive style because of which they are so popular among the people even today. Those were also said as the later Tughlaq style. All the masjids that were constructed in the country were of different nature and this is the reason that they are so popular. These were having different style of construction and traditional Muslim culture. The local artisans were so creative and talented that they provided good structure to all those places which were constructed in those periods. There was huge difference in all the masques that were constructed in that period and also they depend upon the climatic conditions, soil of that area and other things. In this way, the mosques of Kashmir will be different fro Bengal. As concern about the Babri Mosque it was constructed as per the Jaunpur School of Architecture.
Babri masjid is one of those mosques that were constructed as per the traditional Mughal buildings and they were preserved after Delhi Sultanate which was taken rise in 1192. The most typical design is for Char Minar which is having the minarets and arches. This art was exclusively prepared by the Muslim rulers and this is the thing because of the buildings of those eras are popular. Then, the design were changed to some more interesting deign as Taj Mahal was constructed.
The traditional way of constructing the mosques was started from the Western Asia in those times when the rise of Muslim was begun. They also depend upon the climatic conditions and other those conditions which influenced them to come to this place. The Babri Mosque was having the mixture of local and Western Asian style. It is having the three domes among which, one is at the front and the other two were at the back. It is having two walls through which it was surrounded. They run parallel to each other and the entrance were fixed on two stone tablets. It was design as per the Persian traditional mosques. It was constructed by the general of Babur, Mir Baqi. He constructed it as per the orders of Babur itself. The blocks rectangular in shape and they provide good look to it while a person is entering into it. Its walls were prepared through Chunam paste and coarse sand after mixing both of them.
Central courtyard was constructed in order to provide increment to the height of ceilings. They were distributed under various columns. The architectural design of the mosque was carried on as per the Begumpur Friday mosque which was of Jahanpanah instead of constructing it through Mughal traditional architecture. There were excellent craftsman ship is seen in those areas where they are needed. There are various other mosques too which were constructed prior to it and with the same nature as it was built.
Babri Masjid Acoustic And Cooling System
Babri Masjid is having good acoustic sound system. This is the reason because of which a person may listen to a whisper from at least a 200 ft. distance. It was also mentioned in the book of Graham Pickford, who was an architect of Lord William Bentinck. He also wrote that this is the quality of all those buildings which was built during 16th century and through this way, they are able to communicate to a large number of people in a large place. He wrote the book, Structures of Oudhe because of the inspiration which he reviled from this mosque. This is the only thing that may make the visitor astonish as how he may be able to listen to a voice from so far distance.
This is the thing which is not so possible for the modern architects. They gave the exciting feature of acoustic system by breaking up the walls of Mihrab. These walls functions like a resonators. Thorough this design, a person get help in listening the voice from far places easily. This is also possible because of the sandstone which is used in the mosque. They play an important role in providing good acoustic sound volume. Apart from all these things there are various other things in which it made this mosque a better and unique mosque among others. The Tughluqui style of the mosque provides good impression to it than other mosques. There were various few techniques which written a new chapter in construction of mosques. These were, arches, cooling system, domes and vaults. Environmental system also preserved in the mosque and among it, there are domes, six large grilled windows, and high ceilings were used. This is the reason that keeps the interior part of the mosque cool and also provides good ventilation to it.
Babri Masjid's Miraculous Well
In the year 1989, BBC along with other news channels and print media discovered this fact that the central courtyard of Babri Masjid is having a deep well. Most of the people come to Ayodhya while it is a place where Ram festival takes place every year and this is the place of pilgrimage as well. Most of those people who are coming to the festival use to drink water from that well which is located in the central courtyard of that masjid. Research says that people use to fell ill while drinking water from that well. This is the reason for disputes as Muslims use to say that this is the well that is gifted to them from Allah and Hindu use to say that the well is from that time when Lord ram use to stay in that place. Most of the women use to take water from that well so that they may serve to their newborns so that they may get the blessings of God.
The height of the well is 125 foot or 40m. It is located in the south eastern section which is in the courtyard of masjid. As per the Hindu religion sayings, there was a shrine which was built adjoining to the well and along with statue of Lord Ram. It was built in 1890. There was some area of the well which was bricked. The taste of that water was sweet as it does not contain any kind of sodium or other chemicals. The water was drawn with the help of a rope.
Conflicts Over The Site
The issue developed among the both religious groups, Hindu and Muslim that the place is of their own God. The clash was on so high sake that it developed violence and many people died in riots and brutal killings. It started from a very long back in 1853 when Navab Wajid Ali Shah was the ruler of Awadh region. At that time, the Hindu sect who was known as Nirmohi agreed that the place was sacred and there the Hindu Lord Ram was born. They also said that the mosque was illegally constructed by Babur after demolishing the old temple. Violence increased and as it developed on high profile, an order from the administration came that there will be no temple construction will take place and the place is also not use for prayers. This was the first time when the place was having some kind off dispute.
Later on in 1883, one more time the effort had been taken to build a temple on the vacant chabootara and this time, the Deputy Commissioner of Faizabad denied the orders on January 19, 1885. This time, the suit was filed by Mahant Raghbir Das to Sub-Judge of Faizabad, Pt. Harikishan. The order was again dismissed and the court said not to build any kind of thing on that land. Once again the effort was made and this time, suit was re-filed to District Judge Cl. J.E.A. Chambiar. He did the inspection on March 17. 1886, and denied any kind of construction on the place. For the next time, on 25 May, 1886, the appeal was filed in front of the Commissioner who was ruling over Awadh, W. Young. He again dismissed the appeal and this turned out to be a legal battle from Hindus came to a stop.
The walls and domes of the masjid were damaged badly during the riots that had taken place in 1934. This was the communal riots that happened among two groups. Though it made a lot of communal damage economically, the British official repaired the damage later on. After this incident, the mosque and other appurtenant of that were taken under custody by the Waqf number 26, Faizabad. The land including the graveyard called Ganj e Shaheedan, Qabristan. The registration was done under the Holy place of Muslims, Up Sunni Central Board of Waqfs. It was registered under the 1936 Act. The background of those harassments that were happened on Muslims were recorded till date by Md. Ibrahim, who was the Waqf Inspector in that time and submitted his report to the council on December 10 and 23, 1949. it was submitted to the secretary.
The incident happened on 22 December, 1949 that when Police guards were asleep in Masjid, then the idols of Ram and Sita were brought allegedly and the mosque was erected. The next morning, the constable who was performing duty over there, Mata Prasad reported this thing to the Police Station of Ayodhya. After this news to Vallabhbhai Patel, he directed the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh at that situation to see that the idols must be removed from the mosque immediately. He also conveyed this message to the Home Minister of State Lal Bahadur Shastri. As per the orders of chief minister of state, Bhagwan Sahay, the Chief Secretary at that time and V.N. Lahiri, the Inspector General of Police sent instructions to Faizabad to remove the idols immediately from that disputed place.
The K.K. Nayar, at that time posted as inspector of that area feared that Hindus may create a big problem if the idols were removed from the mosque. The matter goes even more complicated and the thing was that the opposition leader, JB Kriplani also stood against the decision. At that time, the decision was to be taken back and no further action has been taken.
There were two main and serious orders came into force. In 1384, the members from Vishva Hindu Parishad came in front and said that they will open the gate of mosque. In 1985, this order came officially from the government of Rajiv Gandhi that the gates of mosque and ram Janam Bhoomi should be unlocked.
The story of demolition just begins on December 6, 1992 when Lal Krishan Advani, a member of BJP, met Vinay Katiyar, his companion on his residence. Both of them including other people like Murli Manohar Joshi and other member of party went to the structure which was under dispute. It was the place where Kar Seva has to be performed. There was a platform prepared where a puja had to be organised. Both Advani along with Joshi checked the arrangements while just 20 minutes left for the things to be started. They proceeded away from the Ram Katha Kunj to about 200 metres. This was the building which was facing a dispute and that has to be erected by these two senior leaders. At the noon time, a young volunteer from that Kar Seva proceeded to the top of the dome and signalled for breaking the main gate down. As per the reports, Advani and other minister, Vijay Raje Scidhia did not request the volunteers not to demolish the building but they requested them to come down so that media persons may earn their profits.
Demolition Planned In Advance
It was mentioned in the book released from the Joint Director of intelligence Bureau, Maloy Krishna Dhar opening the pages that the demolition was planned 10 months prior to the event. It was planned among the regional and national parties like BJP, VHP and RSS. It also raised the questions on prime minister at that time P V Narsimha Rao who issued that order. He also disclosed this fact that he was told to arrange the meeting and also cover it. The meeting was scheduled between BJP and Sangha Parivaar. These two communal parties joined hands so that they may take on Hindutva on international platform. They also choreographed the dance of destruction that they called Pralaya Nritya in December 1992 at Ayodhya. The other parties like Bajrang Dal and other small parties agreed to come to the rally and also perform the things as they were directed. They have to handle the tape of this meeting to their boss which was Prime Minister, Rao itself. There was one more person to whom the copy of that tape had to be handled and that was the Home Minister, S B Chavan. They all decided that the Hindutva will be their slogan and they will start demolishing the mosque with the support of all their volunteers and other local Hindu people. It all was done for the political benefit by the BJP and this was all disclosed in the book of that author.
Liberhan Commission Findings
In the report which came in 2009 from justice Manmohan Singh Librahan that there were total 68 people who were to be blamed avbout the demolition process that was started in December 1992. There were various big politicians including Advani, Kalyan Singh, A B Vajpayee, and other bureaucrats who did the shameful act. He also came with harsh criticism among all these leaders. In the other case, former minister, Murli Manohar Joshi was also accused for disturbing the evidences that were available in the Librahan Commission’s Report.
It was a sudden shock that appeared to the country after this incident that both the communities, Hindu and Muslim started killing each other and it converted into a big riot. This all happened because of the demolition of mosque. There were all around 2000 people died. It also felt as some terror attacks as Indian Mujahiddin did several bomb blasts to take revenge of that demolition. Not only in India but in Pakistan as well, many Hindu temples were demolished to show protest against the demolition of mosque. News also came from Bangladesh that many shops, homes and temples of Hindu were destroyed and burnt by anti communist people to show their protest.