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Bihar Valmiki Tiger Reserve
|Area||840.26 sq. km|
The Valmiki Tiger Reserve is the outcome of the formation of the Himalayan Terai jungle. This reserve lies in the lands of Gangetic lying within bio-geographic confinement of the vast country. The forest consists of terai and bhabar tracts. Pebble and boulder deposits, which lie on the rivers of the Himalayas characterize the tract of Bhabar, where as the tinnier deposits of sediments feature the areas of terai.
The Valmiki National Park as well as Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the north western corner of Champaran, a district belonging to Bihar state. The name Champaran has been derived from the two words Aranya and Champa. The meaning of these words is jungle of champa trees. In fact, this park is situated between 27˚-10’ and 27˚-03’N latitude and 83˚-50’ and 84˚-10’E longitude. As far as it total area is concerned, it consists of nearly 900 square kilometers, out of which, the expanse of Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary is about 880 square kilometers. Amidst the terai of Himalayas, tract of Valmiki joins Parsa Willife Reserve as well as the Chitwan National Park and also neighboring part of Nepal. As far as its natural extent is concerned, the area of wildlife zone is nearly 3000 square kilometer. Both Wildlife sanctuary and Valmiki National Park are two large segments of conservation of tiger scene. US-WWF has gauged the protected areas of this wildlife sanctuary and Parsa wildlife reserve and Chitwan national park lying in Nepal as Level-1 Tiger conservation unit due to sufficient centre lands and less amount of pressure.
Prior to independence, the forests of the Valmiki were owned by two zamindars, Ramnagar Raj and Bettiah Raj. The forests of the Valmiki were controlled for the production of Timber. The wood of timber is very useful for making articles of furniture. The administration took over the reign of forests of Ramnagar in the year of 1950 and also the forests of Bettiah Raj in the year of 1953 and in 1954 under the act of Bihar Private Protected forest. Later, the status of the protected area was granted to these forests. From the years 1960 to 1994, the whole forest was placed under the reign of the state forest administration. The whole was given to large amount of afforestation with bamboo, shisham, semal and teak. Later, in the year of 1974, the whole forest was given to the Bihar state forest development corporation on rent, with the assistance of which, it took reign over the whole jungle with the objectives of mercantile. In the year of 1978, the part of the area which was known as well settled habitation, was proclaimed as Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary. The dwelling places were known as sanctuary in the year of 1990. During later years, Valmiki national park was more developed. State forest development corporation handed over the forests in the year of 1994 and also the constitution of 18th reserve under the influence of Project Tiger Government of India came into effect.
Climate And The Most Appropriate Time To Visit
The climate of Valmikinagar is very pleasant. It is located on latitude: 27°- 3’ North to 27°- 10’ North and longitude: 83°- 0' East to 84°- 41’ East. Its elevation is nearly 125m to 88m above the level of sea. The season of summer starts from the months of March to June. The rainy season starts from the months of July to September. The pleasing winter months starts from November to February. The maximum and minimum temperatures of Valmikinagar are 36 degree centigrade and 8 degree centigrade respectively. The rainfall records nearly 1461.2 mm to 2053.3 mm.
Most Appropriate Time To Visit
The time from October to March is the most appropriate time for the purpose of viewing it. The months of winter i.e. from December to February are colder and the least temperature goes as low as 7 to 8 degree Celsius. Because of biting cold, heavy clothing is recommended.
Worth Visiting Places
- The forests of Harnatanr and Ganauli are worth visiting places. Its core and fronts shelters with rivers and streams are very exhilarating.
- Sal forests, which are very condensed and belong to Raghai range are eye catchy things.
- Another attraction is undisturbed hills of Sal forests which faces towards the border in the northern direction and is next to Chitwan national park.
- Thereafter, a dismal and solitary expanse of 26 villages lying inside the deeper jungle is known as Done area.
- The other attractions are the peaks belonging to Someshwar hills, which overlooks Nepal and India through mesmerizing and alarming gorges.
- The broad and dense pouch of jungle lying in the oblong section of Someshwar from Gabardhana to Dhumatanr is worth visiting.
- The marshy lands and mixed and moss forests of riparaian region belonging to Gandak River lying in Madanpur range is also very enjoyable.
- There also exists a big expanse of high grassland lying in the range of Madanpur. Gandak River, which flows past Valmiki, which is considered very sacred, is a good source of attraction.
- The solitary site of a great saint Valmiki lying across Sohal river is full of awe and inspiration. Vantage points, which are located at many placaes for checking out the attractive views of peaks, and snow-clothed ranges of the elevated Himalayas, are full of thrill and fascination.
- Another attractive thing is Bhitiharawa Ashram belonging to the father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi, is located in Gaunaha lying in the eastern end.
- The Baudh Stupas and the Ashokan pillar are located at Lauriy and Nandangarh. Udaipur wildlife sanctuary is situated nearby Bettiah.
- The threshold of river Pandai and attractive railway terminals are located at Bhikhna Thori, which is built by the railways of British north Bengal.
- Other attractions are Madanpur Devi Asthan temples, Sofna, Nardevi and Jatashankar. The other attractive temple is Someshwar temple which is atop Someshwar peak.
How To Get There
The sanctuary is situated on the rail route of Gorakhpur and Muzaffarpur through Narkatiganj. Direct trains run from metropolitan cities to go this sanctuary. Daily or weekly trains run from Amritsar, Dehradun, Siliguri, Kolkata, Mumbai and New-Delhi to go to Bagaha and Narkatiganj. Gorakhpur and Muzaffarpur are the nearest main junctions to carry passengers for Narkatiganj. The field directorate is located on the headquarter of west Champaran situated at Bettiah, which is about 70 km from this sanctuary.
This sanctuary is located at a distance of nearly 275 km from the state capital of Bihar, Patna. It lies at a distance of 200 km from Muzaffarpur, the main city and railhead of Bihar. It lies at a distance of 70 km from Bettiah and 125 km from Gorakhpur by road. Vehicles can be hired for these places for reaching this sanctuary.
Gorakhpur, Kolkata and Patna.
Flora And Fauna
Valmiki forest is subjugated by Colebookea oppositifolia, Bridelia retusa, Murraya koenigii Ziziphus , Indigofera pulchella, , and Pheonix humilis. In reference to grasses, Imperata cylindrica, Eulaliopsis binata, Vetiveria zizanoides, Saccharum spontaneum, Capillipedum assimile, Phragmites karka, Chrysopogon aciculatus, Typha angustata are frequently observed species of Valmiki forests. Most common climbers of Valmiki are Acacia pennata, Bauhinia vahlii, Smilax parviflora, Caesalpinia cucculata.
Sal and sihor (Strebulus asper) flourish on the alluvial soil of Gandak River by means deciduous vegetation. Some of the pertinent affiliates of Sal forests are, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia tomentosa Dalbergia latifolia, Mitragyna parviflora, Adina cordifolia, Ehretia laevis, Angeissus latifolia. Mixing of plantations of teak bamboo, semal hisham and Khair with natural forest is there.
Jamun Ficus sp. and Agai manages the little mountainous half evergreen forests. General tree associates of freshwater muddy areas are Jamun Sihor and Gular Ficus glomerata. The apparent property of Madanpur forest are the Cane brakes). The unmatchable low aititude Chir Pine trees are found in the holes of Raghia hills.
The habitat of the sanctuary supports a big collection of faunal species. Predators like Tigers, Leopards and Indian wild dogs are shown there. Apart from them, leopard cat and fishing cat are also found roaming in the area. Spotted deer, sambhar, barking deer and hog deer exhibit the species of deer. Some of the ripples such as Indian bison Nilgai and wild boar are perceived visually in the forests. In the category of primates, it includes Rhesus macaque and common Langur. 53 species of mammal has been recorded by Zoological Survey of India (ZSI).
Reptiles include Python, crocodile, king cobra, krait, monitor lizard, hill turtle. 10 species of amphibians, 27 species of reptiles and 75 species of insects have been recorded by ZSI.
A tourist lodge, ValmikiVihar, managed by State Tourism Development Corporation Hotel is situated at beautiful site at Valmikinagar. Twelve double-bed rooms aside from Forest Rest Houses of two double-bedrooms each are provided here. These are located at Naurangia Done, Gobardhana, Manpur, Kotraha, Ganauli, Madanpur,and Manguraha. Thus, this sanctuary is very exhilarating and rejuvenating. The tourists come here in hordes for their refreshment and merriment. There is no danger to their lives. They are provided full protection and security.
For any query contact:
Valmiki Tiger Project (VTP)
W. Champaran, Bettiah – 845438 (Bihar)
Telefax: 06254-245331 (O);