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Jammu & Kashmir
In India, the music of the Jammu & Kashmir represents its cultural and musical heritage. There were wider ranges of compositions in music as given by Kashmiri musicians. The Kashmiri music involves the music of three regions also as Kashmir is very close to the three regions that is Central Asia, Southern Asia, and Eastern Asia. The music of the valley of Kashmir represents the traditional music of central Asia and music of Jammu represents Ladakhi music and music of North India and Tibet.
One of the popular folk music that is played in Jammu & Kashmir is Chakri. This form of music is played in combination with harmonium, nout, sarangi, and the rubab. This is a form of song that represents the stories like love stories popularly as Laila Majnun, Yousuf-Zulaikha, and fairy tales and this Chakri form is endup with a dance form rouf, which is basically the different stories with short notes of ends. On the occasion of Kashmiri Pandits and Muslims wedding, this song is basically sung on the night of Henna.
The tradition of the Kashmir includes the most popular form of music that is named as Ladishah. This is a form of signing that included sarcastic form. The song represents humor and themes of political and social conditions. At the time of harvesting, the Kashmiri singers moved one village to another to perform. This song is based on the current condition even if it may be social, political or cultural and sung at that time. Even sometimes, the lyrics of the songs were very hard but still it is fully entertaining to the people of villages and this song represents the truth of life.
Sufiana Kalam is the main form of Kashmir’s classical music. This form of music has ragas that were also known as maqam. These ragas were sung on the santoor that is instrument having 100 stringed with harmonium, setar, Kashmiri saz, wasool, and tabala. This Sufiana Kalam shows the essence of Sufi mystics too and it is very famous since at the time of people arriving from the Iran at the time of 15th century. The form of dance that is based on sofiyiana kalam is named as hafiz nagma.
The musical heritage and legacy of the ancestors of the state is shown by the Masade, which is most popular folk song of the Jammu & Kashmir. To represent the artistic caliber of the singer, this form of folk song Masade sung by the singers of the Jammu & Kashmir. This form of song has its own unique quality that this song does not include any instrument with it. With the help of devotion and enthusiasm, the Masade folk song is sung by the chorus that represents their performance with great exemplary. The words and melody of this Masade song fills with whole atmosphere with joy and music as composed by the original inhabitant of the Jammu & Kashmir.
The texts like Kalhana, Rajatarangini, and Nilmatapurana shows the music and instruments of the state. The commentary named Abhinavabharati on the shows of Bharata Natyashastra represents that music is very importance since the ancient times. Goddess Sharada played the one of the famous musical instrument that is named santoor, which has 100 strings. On the various cultural program and religious functions, the main song sung by Kashmiri Pandits is Henzae.
The most popular players of Santoor from this state are Pt. Shivkumar Sharma and Pt. Bhajan Sopori. The santoor was basically originated from Iran and recital of santoor was given by Pt. Bhajan Sopori in Iran also. The looks and sounds of the Kashmiri santoor is quite unlike from the Persian santoor that is original. The adaptation of santoor was done by Sopori's family.
The singers wear the costumes that are unusual for the purpose of marriage with lengthy narrative songs in Ladakh.
The basic instruments Surna and Daman were used for traditional music. There is also touch of Tibetan or Sanskrit in the music of Ladakhi Buddhist festivals. The sacred texts containing recitation and chants were very complex in the festival season. Lack of metrical timing was performed in Yang chanting that is included drums, low and syllables that is sustained.