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Uttarakhand Kumaoni Language
A region is situated in Indian Himalayas which is known as Kumaon. This region is the district of Indian State of Uttarkhand and also its people are known as Kumaoni. This medium of communication is also regarded as one of the languages of Central Pahari. Moreover this language is widely spoken by thousands of people living in Indian states like Delhi, Bihar, Assam, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. Also many people from Uttarkhand and its districts like Nanital, Almora, Bageshwar and Rudrapur converse in this language. It is also extensively orated in Nepal and Himachal Pradesh. Additionally this language belongs to Indo European Language family and this language family contains few branches which are Indo Iranian, Indo Ayran, Northern, Central Pahari, Pahari and Kumaoni. It even uses the writing style of Devnagari script to jot down its writings. In addition this language has few regional dialects same as Garhwali language inhabits. These dialects are spoken in several different areas of Uttarkhand. Some divisions of these dialects are as follows: -
Central Kumaoni dialect is spoken in northern Nanital and Almora
Western Kumaoni dialect is orated in west of Nanital and Almora
South eastern Kumaoni dialect is spoken in south eastern Nanital
North eastern Kumaoni dialect is spoken in Pithoragarh
Additionally this language is widely spoken in many districts of Uttarkhand. Therefore it is also identified that people who can converse and understand well Kumaoni idiom can also easily understand and speak Hindi and Nepali languages as well. These are therefore considered as official idioms in India. It is even surveyed that now days Kumaoni language is declining and also be UNESCO it is regarded as one of the unsafe category which further asks for more developments and efforts. In addition this Kumaoni verbal communication follows the writing format of Devanagri script.
In total there are 20 dialects which are orated in Kumaon region of Uttarkhand. This language is also verbally orated in many districts such as Danpuriya, Sirali, Askoti, Kumaiya, Gangola, Phaldakoti, Pachhai and Khasparjia. Additionally the Askoti and Baitada dialect both are similar whereas the scholars regard this Kumaoni language heavily influences Palpa language of Nepal. Moreover the dialects of this language are, Central Pahari, North eastern Kumaoni, South eastern Kumaoni, Askoti, Western Kumaoni, Danupriya of Danpur, Bhabri of Ramnagar, Johari of Malla, Pashchimi, Sirali of Sirakot, Gangoli of Ganai – Gangoli, Phaldakotiya of Phaldkot, Rhau of Chaubyansi and Khasparjiya of Almora.
Kumaoni language plays a vital role in Media. Several films, theatre shows, folk music and radio FM are based on this language. Films like Megha Aa, Teri Saun, Aapun Biran and Madhuli all use Kumaoni language as their medium of communication. These films were super hit films and have also won several awards. Moreover there are number of theatre plays which also use Kumaoni language. The most awaited Ramleela play was the most significant play. Later on this play was transformed into modern form by many efforts done by Dinesh Pandey and Mohan Upreti in upbringing the standard and promoting this Kumaoni verbal communication. Later on a number of rap and Folk music were broadcasted in Kumaoni language. Also both in entertainment, religious, cultural and tradition segment, several plays and stories and even music in Kumaoni language were entertained. Additionally numerous renowned singers and musicians have played a dynamic role in transformin numbers of songs into Kumaoni language and also upbringing the cultural heritage of the region. Furthermore the music instruments used in narrating and singing Kumaoni songs are dhol, turri, damoun, dholki, thali, daur, masakbhaja and bankora.
In addition this language Kumaoni also holds number of radio stations playing Kumaoni language songs, music, stories and a huge number of programmes. All these entertainment sectors are widely broadcasted by several radio channels. The new radio programme known as Utterayana which was introduced by Akashwani Luck now. This programme is especially broadcasted for Chinese border region. Later on in year 2010 numerous air programmes on entertainment, environment, culture and agriculture all were broadcasted in Kumaoni language. The people of communities took part actively into it and there after this Radio programmes and stations became important and gain popularity among Kumoan people.
The literature of Kumaoni language is rich. It contains many folk literary aspects. Moreover it contains several Kumaoni poems written by brilliant poets. Also there are number of songs which are based on deeds of goddess and god on earth along with also on some characters of Mahabharata and Ramayana. Furthermore it inhabits several songs which are based on love story of Malushahi and Rajula. All these songs are totally dedicated on local history and which are sung usually during the collective events of agricultural activities. Even in some wealthy valleys of this Kumaon region there are ample of songs from which hurkjaboi is enjoyed a lot. It is a living folk song sung by the known musicians of Kumaon region. In addition there are also numbers of songs which are based on children, the relation between man and his bullocks whereas some songs are still sung in representing the nature beauty of this Kumaon region.
Additionally the proverbs used are also very poetic and therefore it holds numerous songs which are based on Kumaoni language. Even the literature of this region is very rich along with some of well known writers like Bachi Ram Arya, Chandra Lal Chaudary, Jeewan Chandra Joshi and Pitamber Pandey. All these writers have shown an ultimate work and also has contribute a lot in raising the literature of Kumaoni language. This language has even contributed a lot to Hindi journalism and literature. Therefore the Hindi writings are basically based on Kumaoni language. Also this Kumoan region is well versed in numbers of cultural and religious activities along with several festivals and events ceremonies.