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Tripura Kokborok Language
The Kokborok or the Kok borok or Borok language is also identified as Tripuri language. This idiom is the native medium of communication of Tripuri people of the Indian state of Tripura and also of the adjoining regions of Bangladesh. Moreover the word Kok borok is derived as Kok means language and borok means people. Therefore this idiom is especially put in use for Tripura borok people. Originally the meaning of Kok borok is Language of the Borok. Furthermore this language belongs to Sino Tibetian family which further involves two groups which are Brahmaputran, Tibeto Burman, Bodo Koch, Bodo Garo, Bodo and Kokborok. Additionally this language is officially recognised by Indian state of Tripura.
This language inhabits in several forms starting from 1st century AD. At this era Twipra Kings historical records were found which were written in Kokborok language. Moreover the script of Kokborok is named as Koloma and in a book known as Rajratnakar includes the chronicles of Kings of Borok. This Rajratnakar book was initially jotted down by Durlobendra Chontai in Kokborok language by using the script of Kolama. Afterwards this book was translated into Sanskrit version by two known Brahmins known as Vaneswar and Sukreswar and then again in 14th century it was translated in to Bengali version. Furthermore this language was related to Bengali language and was therefore relegated to basic common people. In addition in the year of 1979, Kokborok was identified as the official language of the Indian state of Tripura. Later on it was given recognition in India as a National Language.
Classification and Related Languages
The Kokborok language is a Tibeto Burman language which lies beneath the language family of Sino Tibetan of South East Asia and South Asia. Moreover it is closely related to Dimasa and Boodo language of the adjoining state of Assam. Also the Garo language is heavily influenced from this Kokborok idiom specially in verbal form in the states of Meghalaya and Bangladesh.
This Kokborok is a Tibeto Burman language and consists of High, mid high, low and mid low sounds effects in case of vowels. Also in terms of consonants the stops, affricates, aspirates and fricatives all give different sound effects. Moreover in case f Kokborok language the original writers claimed to use the word w in case of vowels whereas in English this word is not used. Furthermore Kokborok language involves two tones which are high and low tone. Additionally there are diphthongs which are a cluster of two vowels. This Kokborok language does not start with ng they require any vowel except w at the end of syllable. Also it uses clusters which are the group of consonants at the starting of a syllable.
The morphology of Kokborok language can be divided into five segments which are as follows: -
Naturalized loan words
Words with suffixes
The verbs and nouns can easily be differentiated in Kokborok language. There are number of Suffixes which construct the verbal root of all the true verbs in Kokborok language. Moreover these are placed as per definite rules and cannot place randomly.
The numbers in Kokborok language are pronounced as, some of the example are, 1- sa, 2- nwi, 3- tham, 4- brwi, 5- ba, 6- dok, 7- sni, 8- char, 9- chuku,10- chi.
Assam, Tripura and Mizoram all constitute in Borok nation of India. It even involves some adjoining provinces which is Bangladesh country which inhabits chiefly Chittagong Hills. Moreover it contains three chief dialects which are not equally comprehensible. Therefore it contains the most prestige dialect which is Debbarma, and this dialect can easily be understood by everyone. Furthermore this language is learned in various schools and colleges from class fifth up to graduate level. Kalai, Jamatia and Noatia are other main dialects of Kokborok language.
Radhamohan was the person who made first effort in printing the book named Kokborokma written in Kokborok language. This book was published in 1900 AD and further he wrote two more books known as Traipur Bhasabidhan and Traipur Kothamala. Later on in year of 1945, the Tripura Janasiksha Samti came into existence. This book was published in many schools and also in several regions of Tripura. Now presently this Kokborok Language has several literary books which are based on monumental work.
Kokborok language is spoken in many communities like: -
Darlong part of North
Reang, South Eastern and Eastern
As per 2001 census, it was estimated that there are 854023 people residing in Tripura region. Out of this total mass approximately 761964 residents spoke Kokborok language while other converse in different languages. It is also reported that Bangladesh region inhabits about 78000 Kokborok lingo speaking people and in India about 658000 Kokborok Lingo inhabitants. Also apart from India, many people are seen in other countries also conversing in Kokborok Language.
The Kolama script of Kokborok has disappeared now and from 19th century the Twipra Kingdom used the script of Bengali to write Kokborok language. From the independence that is from 1947, India merger with Twipra region. Since then onwards the Roman script came into existence by organizations of non government. Moreover this script issued is highly politicized and therefore recently now days both scripts are used in Tripura region in literary, cultural and educational level.
The language and also the culture of Tripura region is now highly motivated by Kokborok Hukumu Tei Mission which is a cultural organization in Tripura region. Moreover this mission was underway by Jamatia Naphurai. Furthermore it also contains an office which is situated in Agartala’s Krishnanagar region. Additionally this language has published many books and novels in Kokborok language.