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Orissa Oriya Language
Oriya language is in the right place of Indo Aryan Language. This is also an Indian language which belongs to Indo European Language family. Also it is spoken in many parts of Indian state of Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. Even many people from Chhattisgarh extensively spoke this medium of communication. Moreover this language is regarded as the official language in India’s state Orissa. It is even second official lingo in Jharkhand. Additionally this predominant verbal communication of Orissa has numbers of speakers as per the survey. In addition this language inhabits Indo European Language family which further resides some group such as Indo Aryan, Indo Iranian, Oriya and Eastern.
This Oriya verbal communication is not only spoken in Orissa but also in many other linguistics regions such as West Bengal Midnapore district, West Singhbhum’s Kharsawan district, Ranchi, Khunti and Gumla. Moreover this language is spoken widely in Srikakulam, eastern Districts of Chhattisgarh and Vishakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. Furthermore this language is also conversed well in some parts of Gujarat and Surat. Additionally it is found that a large number of Oriya speaking people inhabits in Hyderabad, Bangalore, Pondicherry, Chennai, Goa, Baroda, Jamshedpur, New Delhi, Kolkata, Guwahati, Pune and Kharagpur. Also not only in India, several Oriya speaking people exists all over the world. Many residents of Bangladesh, Bali, Indonesia, and Java speak Oriya language. Even some residents who were carried to Canada, United States, Australia and England also converse in Oriya verbal communication. This one of the official languages of Orissa and also the major idiom has spread its lingo in Malaysia, Burma, Sri Lanka and Fiji.
This Oriya language consists of many groups and dialects as per region wise. These are illustrated as follows:-
Midnapuri Oriya: - it is spoken in Midnapore undivided district of West Bengal
Baleshwari Oriya: - It is spoken in Baleshwar and Mayurbhanj district of Orissa.
Ganjami Oriya: - This dialect is spoken in Gajapati and Ganjam district of Orissa.
Halbi: - This dialect is orated in Bastar district undivided of Chhattisgarg region.
Bhatri: - This dialect is spoken in eastern South Chhattisgarh and South western Orissa.
Singhbhumi Oriya: - this dialect is orated in West and East Singhbhumi and Saraikela of Jharkhand.
Desiya Oriya: - This is spoken in Rayagada, Malkangiri, Nowrangpur and Koraput districts of Orissa.
Oriya is considered as an Eastern Indo Aryan Language which belongs to Indo Aryan Language Family. This language is said to be descendent from Magadhi Prakrit which is related to Ardha Magadhi. This verbal communication was considered as a primary language which was initially used by Jain texts. Moreover it has some influence from Arabic and Persian Languages. Furthermore the history of Oriya language is divided into three parts which are: -
Old Oriya: - This phase was between 7th century to 1200. In this phase Oriya literature was recognised to Charyapada and was written by Buddhist Siddhas of Orissa. Many evidences were found in copper plates, temples and palm leaves.
Middle Oriya: - This era was between 1200 to 1850. This era was further divided into two parts that are Early Middle Oriya and Late Middle Oriya. Numerous manuscripts were found in Mandala Panji or in the temples of Jagannath. Also some proofs were seen in form of poems written by famous poets. The Mahabharat and Chandi Puran were written by the known poets and writers. Later on some evidences were seen in novels which were compiled by known writers like Lavanyabati who proved themselves as the best known writer of Oriya literature.
Modern Oriya: - This era started from 1850 till present day and it consists of Oriya’s first printing typeset by missionaries of Christian.
In 14th century, the history and evolution of Oriya literature came into existence. The famous poet Sarala wrote many literary works in form of praising Durga goddess. Rama bibaha was the first longest peom written by Arjuna Dasa in Oriya Literature form. Moreover this Oriya language is rich in literature and consists of many writings, poems and novels based on in Oriya language. A number of renowned and well versed poets and writers have made a great attempt to jot down many poems, novels and scripts on Oriya language and compile several things for its literature. Furthermore the first Oriya’s printing typeset was printed by missionaries of Christian. Since 3th century this language has rich literary heritage. In addition many scripts and writings of this language Oriya is totally based and somewhat related to Assamese and Bengali script. Even many words and phrases are adopted from Sanskrit language which at times shares the same phonology as well.
The Oriya script is usually written in Kalinga script. In ancient India, this script was considered as one of the descendent. Moreover this Kalinga is regarded as one of the earliest inscription in Oriya language. Furthermore this script appears in curve form, which means that it was written on palm leaves which have the capability to tear if still many straight lines are used. Additionally it is an Indo Aryan Language spoken by many people chiefly in Indian state of Orissa and also in Jharkhand, West Bengal and Gujarat. In addition this language is closely related to Bengali and Assamese languages. This language is written from left to right in horizontal lines.
In Oriya language there are 6 vowels and 8 consonants phonemes.
This Oriya language keeps hold of many Sanskrit cases. The nominative, acusative, vocative and dative cases all have merged in Oriya language. Moreover there are three genders in Oriya language along with it also contains two grammatical numbers which are plural and singular. Furthermore it inhabits three true tenses which are past, present and future while other are formed with auxiliaries.