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Madhya Pradesh Avadhi Language
Awadhi language is an Eastern Hindi Language which is even at times considered as a dialect of Hindi Urdu continuum. This language is also spoken majorly in Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh and Nepal. Moreover some speakers can be found in Delhi and Madhya Pradesh. Furthermore a blend of brij bhasha , Awadhi and bundeli is broadly spoken in Vatsa country of south of Awadh region which even inhabits Allahabad and Kanpur areas. Also this verbal communication is extensively spoken in numerous Caribbean countries where many residents of Uttar Pradesh have been brought as indentured labours by the British government. As per 2001 census, this language is ranked as 29th language in the list of languages by number of native speakers of the World.
Name of the Language
This Awadhi language is recognised by number of names such as Abadi, Abadhi, Ambodhi, Abohi, Biswari, Awadhi, Kosali and Kojali. Also it is considered as the main dialect of Eastern Hindi branch in Indo Aryan group of Languages. These are basically spoken in northern parts of the Indian sub continent and also its Diasporas are distributed all across the world. Additionally this language term Awadhi resembles to denote the language of Awadhbut as matter this language is not confined to Awadh region but is spoken outside this region i.e in Agra, Allahabad, Kanpur and some parts of Nepal.
This Awadhi idiom is considered and spoken as a main part in the Awadh area of Uttar Pradesh, some adjoining Terai regions of Nepal and also in Caribbean countries. This language is also broadly spoken in lower areas of Ganges Yamuna doab. Approximately 40 million people are calculated who speak Awadhi language. Moreover this idiom is ranked as 40th most spoken languages in the world and is mainly orated in Nepal, all over India and in Mauritius even. This language at many parts is spoken by the people as their primary language not the second one. Furthermore this language belongs to Indo European family which further includes few groups such as, Indo Iranian, Indo Aryan group, central zone and East central zone. Additionally the writing system used in Awadhi language is Devanagri and Kaithi scripts whereas some people use the blend of both writings. This language is largely spoken in many districts of Awadh region which includes, Rae Bareli, Gonda, Balrampur, Pratapgarh, Sultanpur and Lucknow. It is even largely spoken in doab areas which include Allahabad, Kanpur urban, Kaushambi and Fatehpur. Additionally in some districts this language is orated partially which includes, Sitapur, Mirzapur, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Lakhimpur Kheri and Ambedkar Nagar. Also in Nepal, Awadhi language is narrated in few zones such as Lumbini Zone whihc includes Rupandehi district, Kapilvastu district and Nawalparasi district. The Rapti zone contains Dang Deukhuri district whereas the Bheri zone includes Bardiya and Banke districts.
This Awadhi language is basically written in Kaithi and Devanagri script.
The main dialects of Awadhi language are as follows: -
- Degauri Tharu
- Fiji Hindi
In Literary Traditions
In literary term, presently Awadhi language has little literary resemblance as many orators have adopted western Hindi in their language. Therefore this language is today considered as only a dialect of Hindi, before Hindi standardization. This was considered as one of the two most significant literary dialect of Hindustani language. This language moreover is considered as one of the earliest Indo Aryan languages which is cultivated for literature. The ancient proof of this language was seen in the specimen of Damodarda Pandita in his writing who embellished during first half of 12th century. He wrote in his book that Sanskrit is the mother tongue which was a kind of old Awadhi language spoken. Further in 14th century the Sufi tradition came into and it discovered many Muslim writers who wrote number of poems and writings of medieval Hindu inspiration and knitted them into several Awadhi poems. It is also found that the manuscripts of these poems were in Persian character as at that time there was Muslim influence.
Also the Awadhi dialect of Hindi was enhanced by endless Sufi writers who kintted several romantic poems and tales of the folkstyle and also number of beautiful allegorical plays by the way of elucidating the characters of the Sufi doctrines. Later on the well known Hindi writer at the period of Gosvami Tulsidas who was born in UP in 1523 wrote number of masterpiece works. The Ramcharitramanas written in 1574 was one of his native Awadhi languages. This book narrates the story of Rama and also it propounds the story of Bhakti cult. He even wrote other many devotional works of which Vinaya Patrikais a well known work of him. Maulana Daud is regarded as the author of oldest work of this sort of Chandayan. Malik M was even the known writer.
In addition there are number of significant works in Awadhi language which are Candayan written by Maulana Daud. Also the Padmavat of MalikMohammad Jaisi and even the Ramcharitramanas of Tulsidas all are considered as the major important works in Awadhi language. Additionally many works of Hindu literature such as Chalisa and Hanuman Chalisa all are jotted down in Awadhi language. Also many works of North Indian literature such as Chalisas of Hanuman chalisa was also written down in Awadhi language.
Many Indian movies were influenced by Awadhi language before 1990. This language is widely used in several Hindi movies Like Peepli Live and Lagaan. Moreover the famous cinema star Amitabh Bachhan has used this Awadhi language in many of his songs and movies like the well known song Holi khere Raghuvira Awadh Me from Baghban and also in song Ek Rahe Eer Ek Rahe beer in Bhoothnath movie.