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Karnataka Tulu Language
Approximately 1.95 million speakers converse in Tulu language. This verbal communication is orated basically in south west part Of Karnataka which is a state of India. Also a small portion of northern Kerala which is even known as Tamil Nadu consists of numerous Tulu language speaking people. Moreover this idiom belongs to language family of Dravidian. As per 2001 census, it is estimated that there are about 1.72 million speakers of Tulu language in India which later in year of 2009 it was surveyed that about 10 percent speakers of this language has increased up. Furthermore about 5 million speakers of Tulu language were found all over the world. The native and primary speakers of this verbal communication are commonly referred as Tulu people or Tuluva. Apart from South Proto Dravidian family this language even contains numbers of features which are not identified in Kannada and Tamil language.
In addition this language belongs to Dravidian language family which further involves few groups such as South Dravidian, Tulu and Tulu languages. Also this idiom is based on initially on Tulu script and later on Kannada script of writing style. As per Robert Caldwell Tulu language is regarded as one of the highly developed idiom of Dravidian language family and also he wrote many famous books and novels related to Tulu language. Additionally this language has lots of written and oral literature.
This language was originally spoken in Tulu Nadu and also in many districts such of Dakshini Kannada and Udupi in west region of KArnatake. It is also orated in Kasaragod taluk of kerala. apart from Tamil Nadu this idiom is verbally orated in many other states such as Maharashtra, Bangalore and Gulf countries. Additionally this language was written in Tulu script and which is adapted from Grantha script. Later on after 20th century, this language was written in Kannada script format.
This Tulu language belongs to Dravidian language family of Southern branch and it also contains many groups under it which are Southern Dravidian, Tulu and Tulu languages.
The word Tulu means something which is connected with water. Moreover this word contains many words related to it such as Tulave which itself means watery. Therefore overall this language means the language of waters in traditional sense. Also many people from coastal region of Karnataka speak Tulu language.
In era of 14th to 15th century AD, many early inscriptions of Tulu language were identified. Moreover these inscriptions were in Tulu script and are identified in regions of Barkur. Furthermore a number of evidences were recognised in temple of Ullur Subrahmanya. Also this language was considered as the oldest language which belongs to Dravidian language family and contains many preserves in several aspects of Dravidian Proto family language. In addition a number of renowned scholars wrote numerous writings and scripts based on Tulu language.
In ancient days this language was spoken in districts of Kasaragod of Kerela, in Uttara Kannada and also in Gokarna. Moreover this idiom is the official language of Indian state of Karnataka. Many nearby regions like Udupi, Mangalore and Dakshina Kannada orate in this language. Not only in India this medium of communication is seen heavily spoken all over the world. Numbers of immigrants have flourished to different cities and countries outside from India and therefore orate in Tulu Language. In addition many efforts have been made to this language to make it an official verbal communication.
Originally Tulu language was written by the help of Tulu script which is also known as Arya Elzuttu. Later on in 20th century this script declined and again Tulu language was written using Kannada script. Many manuscripts of different types were written in Tulu language. Moreover it is found that many Tulu speakers are bilingual in nature. Furthermore many scripts in Kannada language were jotted down by number of renowned writers. Even literature of this language is rich and therefore there are several literary books and novels based on it.
This language has four dialects which are somewhat similar but with slight variations. These four dialects which are as follows: -
Brahmin Tulu: - This dialect is spoken by Tulu Brahmins and is slightly influenced by Sanskrit.
Harijan Dialect: - This dialect is orated by Mansa, Mera, Tribal and Harijan classes.
Jain Dialect: - This dialect is verbally orated by jains of Tulu.
Common Tulu: - This dialect is mostly conversed by Billava, Bunts and Mogaveera communities. Moreover it is used by trade, commerce and entertainment sectors majorly and is used by inter community communication. Furthermore it is sub divided into five groups: -
- Central Tulu
- North west Tulu
- North East Tulu
- South west Tulu
- South Central Tulu
- South East Tulu
Similar like all language of Dravidian, Tulu language also contains five short and five long vowels. This language has one identical feature which is a word in form of vowel different from other languages. This word cannot be written either in Kannada script and nor in Tulu script. Moreover this verbal communication has phoneme which is in form of Romanized. Many initials of Tulu words are inspired from Sanskrit language.
This Tulu language contains five parts of speech which are pronouns, nouns, verbs, numerals and particles. Moreover it contains three grammatical genders which are feminine, masculine and neuter. It even consists of two locative distinct cases along with two number such as plural and singular and eight cases such as genitive, nominative, dative, locative, accusative, ablative, vocative and communicative. Furthermore this language makes the distinction in between exclusive and inclusive. In addition the three genders in this language are differentiated with remote and proximate nouns. Additionally in Tulu language it inhabits three forms such as reflexive, active and causative.