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Jammu & Kashmir Dogri Language
In Pakistan and India five million people speak Indo Aryan language which is known as Dogri. This is the most significant language and also the official language of Jammu and Kashmir region. Even in some parts of northern Punjab Dogri language is spoken. Moreover the region where Dogri language is spoken is called as the region of Duggar whereas the people speak Dogri language is known as Dogras. This language is also known to be a member of Western Pahari Group of Languages. Additionally in Pakistan it is also referred as the language of Pahari. Dogri is termed as tonal for an Indo European language because it shares some language with western Pahari and even Punjab. The Maharaja Ranbir singh of Jammu and Kashmir proclaimed Duggar as a deformed form of Dwigart word which means two troughs. Afterwards the George Grierson termed this Duggar words with Rajasthani word Dongger which means Hill. Recently in Himachal Pradesh, Bhuri Singh Museum announces this Duggar word with Durger which means invincible. This language is majorly spoken in some parts of Himachal Pradesh that are Kangra, Bilaspur and Chintpurni. The word Doger written in Turkish is as Doger whichis the name of the Turkmen Oguz tribe. Also in Turkey many regions are named after this language. The names of the regions are Doker and Duger.
Takri script was initially used in writing the Dogri script. This script is closely related to script of Sharda which was employed by Kashmir. Also the Gurmi scripts were used in Kashmir to write Punjabi. But recently in India Devanagri script is used in writing the Dogri script. In Pakistan Nastalliq script in Persian Arabic form is used to write Dogri script.
The Punjabi, Western Punjabi and also the Pahari languages all three are tonal languages. This type of feature is very unusual in Indo European Langauge. This feature makes difficult for other Indo Aryan languages people to gain facility in Dogri language. Whereas the Punjabi speakers search it easier to make the transitions and speak.
Alexander was accompanied by Greek astrologer and came to India sub continent. He referred Duggar inhabitants as “a brave Dogra family living in mountain ranges of Shivalik”. Later in 1317, Some Hindi and Persian poets describe few dialects and languages of Duger in India. Now days, Dogri language is translated into Sanskrit version by mathematical opus Lilavati. Moreover Dogri language has an established tradition of poetry, dramatic and fiction works. Some well known poets and also few writers represent their magnificent artworks and literary books in Literary. Furthermore this language holds many famous songs. In Kashmir several TV programmes and radio channels holds number of shows presented in Dogri language. Recently Delhi recognised Dogri as an “independent modern literary language”. Even a Pakistani organisation has claimed Dogri to advance and progress further.
Languages and Dialects
From many times all these languages like Hindi, Dogri, Kashmiri, Punjabi and Urdu are spoken widely in many parts of India and also have gained significant identity and ethnicity. It has even exposed many dialects of Dogri language. Moreover Dogri language holds many dialects of Punjabi language and some of Western Pahari Languages. All these languages hold a central standard on which its literature is based.