Search Indian Maps, Pincodes, Local Info and more...
Goa Konkani Language
Konkani language belongs to Indo European family languages and it is the Indo Aryan language which is widely spoken on the west coast of India. Moreover it is considered as the official language of the Indian state of Goa and also minority language in northern Kerala and Karnataka. It is also consider as a member of southern Indo Aryan Group. Furthermore this language is known by various names such as, gamantaki, gaoni, bramana and canarim. It is even referred as Lingua canarim by Portuguese. In earlier times all the European authors identifies two languages in Goa which are the Plebian and the lingua canarim. These language were used for writing and also in religious purposes.
As Goa is a major trade centre and is commonly visited by number of Turks and Arabs from ancient times therefore it has created many Arabic and Persian words. These words therefore form an integral part of the Konkani language and thus is used in day to day life. At a very little part, Konkani language has Portugal influence. The religious terms and all the contexts in religious terminology adapt the Portugal influence.
The word Konkan comes from the word Kukkana tribe. They were the main original residents of the region Konkani. Moreover as per some Hindu legends, Pashuram shot his arrow into the sea and commanded sea god to recede upto a point where his arrow landed. Therefore a new piece of land was discovered and developed which came to be known as Konkan. This word also means the piece of Earth or the corner of Earth.
Konkani language is divided between many periods like the Pre history and The Early development, The Indo Aryan element and The Later Dravidian Influence.
Konkani language is divided between three stages:-
The Early Konkani: - In this stage the earliest inscription were found in the Aravalem village which was written in Brahmi script. Another inscription was Nagari of Aaparditya King in 1166 AD. Even many copper plates and stone inscriptions were found which were written in Konkani language.
The Medieval Konkani:- In this phase Goa was invaded and it exodus to Marhatta Territory and Cochin and Canada. This stage causes multiple dialects to evolve. Many Konkani communities arrive with their own Konkani dialects. As the Konkani Muslim community of Bhatkal and Ratnagiri arrive with the mixture of Arab seafarers and local even.
The Contemporary Konkani:- Under this stage Konkani language was written in Devanagri script, Persian, Roman and Kannada scripts. This language was written by the speakers in their native dialects. The Goan Antruz dialect in the Devanagri script was claimed as the standard Konkani.
This language is spoken widely in the Western Coastal region of India. The regions consists is the Konkan region of Maharashtra, the Uttara Kannada and also the state of Goa. Konkani language is also spoken in many districts. Each region includes different dialects, vocabulary, and tone and pronunciation style. Moreover Konkani language is ranked as the 15nth language in the Scheduled Languages by strength. As per 2001 estimates, The Census Department of India includes numerous speakers all over India. Ethnologue includes approximately 3.6 million speakers in the world. Additionally some speakers can be found in Kenya, Persian Gulf and Portugal region. Many families still speak different dialects as per their ancestors spoke and they are highly influenced by native languages.
The Konkani language has 36 consonants, 16 basic vowels, 3 sibilants and 5 semi vowels. Same as the Indo Aryan Language it also uses both short and long Syllables and vowels. Moreover different types of nasal vowels feature specially Konkani language. The voiceless or the voiced contrasts are found only in the affricates and stops. The palatal and the alveolar stops are the affricates. Many speakers also substitutes unaspirated consonants for aspirates.
One of the most unique features of Konkani language is the use of e, which is the close mid central vowel. But in case of Hindi and Marathi languages, schwa is used. Whereas most of the Indian Languages use only one of the three front vowels and same with Konkani language it also uses three vowels.
The consonants in Konkani are similar to consonants in Marathi.
The grammar of Konkani language is totally based on Sanskrit structure and is also similar to Indo Aryan language. Furthermore it is rich in syntax and morphology and therefore cannot be described as tone or stress language.
The vocabulary comes from number of sources. Prakrits is the main stream. This language has close relation with Sanskrit, many words resemble same. Moreover the Konkani language vocabulary is made from tatsama, tadhbhava and deshya words. Some Arabic, Turkish and Persian words are also included in Konkani vocabulary.
A very high number of dialects can be seen in Konkani language. Its tree structure can be classified according to caste, religion, region and local tongue. Many speakers are based on historical and cultural aspects. It is further divided into three groups that are:-
Northern Konkani: - It includes dialects in Ratnagri district.
Central Konkani: - It includes dialects in Goa and Northern Karnataka.
Southern Konkani: - It includes dialects in the Canara region of Karnataka
The literature and history of Goa is represented in Konkani language. Numerous books, novels and poems were written in Konkani language. Shamaraja was the first writer who was known for writing scripts in Konkani language. Even many mythological and grammar books were written in Konkani language.
In Popular Culture
In number of Hindi movies many Konkani songs are sung. Moreover the famous movie Asha contains few Konkani language words. Even the children rhyme Eeny meeny mini moe is also derived from Konkani language.