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Bihar Maithili Language
Maithili language is widely verbal in the country’s eastern fringes and also in Bihar, the prominent Indian state. It is even orated in Nepal’s Terai region in the east. This language was earlier well thought-out as the dialect of Bengali and Hindi. In the year of 2003, Maithili accomplished India’s independent verbal communication status. This was happened only just because of the mass association called for making the Maithili an authorized position through its inclusion in the Indian Constitution of the eighth schedule. It may be used for government, education and other purposes also. This language is also spoken approximately by 4.5 corers people throughout the India. Moreover this language is considered as the 16nth most spoken language in India and also 40th most extensively spoken language in the world. Maithili was traditionally written in Kaithi script and Maithili script. Recently Devanagri script is more in usage. Furthermore the first grammar of Maithili was written in 1880-81. The most famous literary figure in Maithili script is the well known poet Vidyapati. The use of Maithili came into most usage instead of Sanskrit in literature at the time of Vidyapati. Additionally Maithili is an important language in Hindu mythology, as it is regarded as the birthplace of goddess Sita. In addition Maithili is derived from Avahattha, which is derived from Magadhi Apbhramsha.
History of the Language
It is considered that this language has been originated in the Eastern Indic region. It is also dissimilar from the language Hindi which is a language of central Indic region. The language derives its name from the word Mithila. Mithila was the name of the father of Sita, King Janak, the ruler of the erstwhile Kingdom. It is also said in very old times in this region, Sanskrit language was used by the learned people and students for their literature related work, while the common people in this kingdom used to speak Maithili. Additionally the several works on this language in the earlier times that are now available are done by the Varn Ratnakar by Jyotirishwar Thakur in the year 1224 AD. In the medieval period, the language received the literary prominence. The modern era of this language started with the inception of a prominent Maithili Theatre. It was started in the year 1982 by Shri Kaushal Kumar Das. The Malla dynasty mother tongue was Maithili language which spread widely throughout the Nepal in 16nth to 17nth century.
The native speakers of Maithili language resides in Jharkhand, Bihar and other states of India. Some also inhabits in few parts of West Bengal and in south east Nepal. Moreover in Jharkhand Maithili is spoken in districts of Dumka, Deoghar, Pakur, Sahebganj, Godda and Jamtara. Furthermore in Nepal Maithili is spoken in outer Terai district of Janakpur Zone which includes Dhanusa, Mahottari and Sarlahi. The Kunshi Zone includes Sunsari district. Additionally the Linguistic and cultural centres of Maithili language includes the centres and district in Bihar which are Supaul, Saharsa, Sitamarhi, Muzaffarpur, Sheohar, Samatipur, Vaishali, Janui, Banka, Lakhisarai, Bhagalpur, Purnia, Katihar and Munger.
The major dialects of the Maithili languages are Central, Angika, Tharuwat, Bajjika and Thethi. The central Maithili is the main standard form in which many books were written. Moreover it is spoken in districts of Dharbanga, Kosi and Purnia divisions. The Bajjika dialect or the western dialect is spoken in the district of Muzaffarpur, East Champaran, Vaishali, West Champaran and Sitamarhi. The Angika dialect or the southern dialect is spoken widely in Bhagalpur division of Bihar and also in Santal Pargana division of Jharkhand. The Mugeri dialect or the Thethi dialect is a variance of Maithili dialect and is usually spoken by the Muslims of Maithili. Moreover it has no specific region and its distribution depends on the distribution of the Muslims upon a region.
In ancient as well as recent times Maithili has rich literature and therefore it presents the most renowned figure in the world of literature in Maithili was the poet Vidyapati. This person was responsible for elevation of Maithili language from the position of people’s languages to be used for the office related work in this state. In Bihar the Darbhanga Maharaja wrote many famous poems in Maithili language. Earlier Sanskrit was the language of the state but later on the language of Maithili came into existence and spread all over the region with many followers and commoners. Jyotiriswar wrote Varn Ratnakar which was his initial writings in Maithili language in the year of 1224 AD. Moreover the language during medieval period was during Karnat Dynasty. Other writers in literature like Gangesh, Chandeshwar and Vireshwar and others were also renowned in this period. Additionally Maithili language has won number of Awards. This language was also accepted by India’s Sahitya Academy. Besides, Maithili was even employed by many writers to write contents related to satire and humour.
Maithili language is divided in three groups which are as follows:-
The Early Maithili Literature which was the period of songs, Ballads and Dohas.
The Middle Maithili Literature which includes the era of Theatrical writings.
The Modern Maithili Literature which came into its own after Sir George Abraham which includes many magazines and journals.
Writing style Along With Grammar
During the early times the Maithili verbal communication was written in Maithili script that occupies some of the resemblance same to Bengali script. Moreover it is also recognized by the names like Mithilakshar and Tirhuta. Despite of this, the language was written in the script of Kaithi too. Furthermore the Devanagri script is usually used for scripting Maithili Language now days. Additionally a suggestion has been launched to preserve Maithili and to develop its script by the use of digital media and also using script encoding into the standard following Unicode. The grammar in this language was considered as the most standard grammar and therefore is totally dependent on sutras used in the Sanskrit Grammar offered by Panini.