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Assam Assamese Language
Assamese or Asamiya is an Indo Aryan Eastern language Spoken mainly in state of Assam in North East India. Small pockets of Assamese speakers are founded in Bangladesh and Bhutan. This language was evolved between 1000 to 1200 AD from the Magadhi Prakrit. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast states. This language is different from Classical Sanskrit and Vedic. Additionally its sister language include Bengali, Bihari and other Chittagonian languages. This official Language of Assam is also widely spoken in many parts of Arunachal Pradesh. Moreover this Assamese language is written from left to right and top to bottom. Even a large number of ligatures are possible and all the consonants are combined with one another. The English word Assamese is developed on the same principle as Sinhalese and Japanese. It is even based on Assam by which the route consisting of Brahmaputra Valley was known. The vowels used in Assamese verbal communication can either be dependant or independent upon a consonant or its cluster.
Moreover Assam has its own system of writing on the bark of the Saanchi tree in which chronicles and religious texts were written. It closely resembles to Mithilakshar script and as well as Bengali script. The Assamese script is a variation that traces its plunge from the Gupta script and is used by the Assamese. Additionally this language Assamese has strong literary tradition in early times. Several examples can be seen in Land grants, copper plates and edicts of medieval kings. The second Assamese dictionary introduced many spellings and words based on Sanskrit which are now very standard. The present day Assamese language is not generally phonetic. Hemkosh is the other dictionary of Assamese language which introduces many spellings which are based on Sanskrit.
The Assamese phonemic inventory consists of ten diphthongs, eight vowels and also twenty one consonants.
In case of Assamese there are four back rounded vowels that contrast phonemically.
Assamese has number of regional and non regional dialects. Banikanta Kakati identifies two regional dialects which are Eastern and Western. The Central group in Nagaon and Morigaon and its adjoining districts. The Kamrupi group in undivided Nlbari, Kamrup, Darang and Bongaigaon district and finally the Goalpariya group in Golpara and Dhubri districts. Recently four dialects are also documented which are Eastern Group in and around Sibsagar district. The regional dialects are often used in creative works and even in novels.
There also survive some regional dialects which are Standard dialect influenced by neighbouring centres. Also there are number of non regional dialects which are community based. Most literary activity takes place in this dialect and is often called as Likhito bhaxa. Additionally the Bhakatiya dialect is highly polite and sattra based which contains different set of nominals, verbal forms and prenominals. The fisherman community has a dialect which is used in central and eastern region whereas the astrologer community of Darrang district uses dialect called thar which is secretive and coded. It also consists of indirect and passive expressions. Some of the features are even used in standard dialect on very formal instances.
Morphology and Grammar
The Assamese language has many morphological features which are as follows:-
Transitive verbs are distinguished from intransitive. Adverbs can be derived from the verb roots. Even a passive construction may be employed idiomatically. There is lexical difference of gender in the third person pronoun. Genders and numbers are not grammatically marked.
Assamese has a massive collection of classifiers which are all used for unique kind of objects.
In Assamese the classifiers are generally used in the numeral+classifier+noun forms. Most of the verbs are converted into nouns by the addition of suffix.
LiteratureAssamese has the immense body of literature. This fast growing verbal communication can be seen in the Charyapadas which is composed in between eight and twelfth centuries. It also contains many writings and poetries. Later it is seen in form of Ojapali which was well crafted. Additionally the Vaishnavite literature came into existence in sixteen to seventeen centuries. Moreover in 19nth century modern form of Assamese literature came into subsistence.