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Andhra Pradesh Telugu Language
In Andhra Pradesh, a state in India, south Central Dravidian language is used which is known as Telugu. This language is widely spoken in numerous states of India like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Orissa. Also it is spoken in adjoining Yanam city and in Pondicherry, a neighbouring territory. Moreover it is influenced by Prakrit and Sanskrit. It is also persuaded by Urdu. Furthermore Telugu is written in a Brahmic alphabet and is considered as one of the 22 languages, a part of the scheduled list of languages in the Republic of India and even one of the 4 classical languages.
Telugu is obtained from the word trilinga, which means “the country of 3 lingas”. As per Hindu legend, Lord Shiva moved down linga on three mountains known as Srisala, Bhimeswara and Kaleswara. Also as per Marepalli Ramachandra Sastry, the word Telu means white and the word unga refers to plural.
Foundation of Telugu
In between 1500-1000 BC, Telugu language came apart from Proto Dravidian languages. The earliest known inscriptions which inhabit Telugu words are seen on the coin which dates back to 400BC. Additionally the origins of Telugu alphabet can be mark out by Brahmi alphabet. Also it was developed as a literary and poetical language during 11th century. From 20th century it came to be written in an archaic style which was very different from the everyday spoken language.
Moreover in the middle of the 20th century, a new written standard emerged which was based on the modern language spoken. Later on by 2008 Telugu was described as a classical language by the Indian government. This widely spoken language is also spread to number of ordinary people with the overture of mass media like radio, newspaper and television.
Telagu dialects are Dasari, Gadwal (Rayalaseema mix), Dommara, Berad, Golari, Salewari, Kamathi, Komtao, Warangal, Konda-Reddi, Toorpu Godavari, Telangana, , Mahaboobnagar (Palamuru), Srikakulam, Vijayawada, Narayanapeta (with an influence of Kannada and Marathi) Vadaga, Visakhapatnam, Kandula, Paschima (West). The most paradigm forms of languages in India are like Kannada, Oriya, Tamil, Bengali, Hindi, Gujarati and Marathi, Shudda Telugu is the name given to Standard Telugu which is often called or Accha Telugu. In Tamil Nadu the Telugu dialect is classified into Coimbatore, Tiruvannamalai Salem and Madras Telugu dialects.
In Pondicherry’s Yanam district, and also in state of Andhra Pradesh, Telugu is spoken by wide number of people. Even in United States, Telugu is spoken by approximately 800,000 people which reside in New Zealand, Center of New Jersey, Canada, Malaysia, Fiji and Singapore. Even in most of European countries in west, a number of Telugu Diaspora exists. After Bengali and Hindi, Telugu is considered as the 3rd highly spoken language. In Karnataka, approximately 7% of mass speaks Telugu where as Tamil Nadu 5.6% consists of people which are called as Telungu.
Telugu displays a vowel harmony form. In disyllabic noun is the second vowel and roots of adjective alter even if the first vowel is a lax or a tense. Moreover Telugu words generally end in vowels. Also some Telugu words has inflectional suffixes vowels which are synchronized with vowels of former syllable.
The first dissertation on grammar in Telugu is the Andhra Sabda Chintamani that was penned by Nannayya in the Sanskrit language. This grammar pursues the patterns that were seen in grammatical discourse like Vālmīkivyākaranam and Aṣṭādhyāyī. Every rule in grammar in the Telugu language is derived from the concepts of Pāṇinian. The Telugu Grammar is called vyākaranam. In nineteenth century, a simple Telagu grammar was written by Chinnaya Suri called Bāla Vyākaranam by taking up information and concepts from grammar by Nannayya's.
For gender, the Telugu nouns are inflected (feminine, neuter and masculine) number (singular, plural), and case (genitive, nominative, instrumental, accusative, dative, vocative, and locative).
Masculine, neutral and feminine are the three gender of Telugu language.
Personal Pronouns are included in Telugu pronouns. In Neutral genders and singular feminine, Telugu make use of the similar form. Vibhakti and Pratyayamulu both depict the development and language’s ancient nature. Reflexive, Indefinite and relative pronouns are also all are included in Telugu pronouns.
Since 1500 years Sanskrit influences Telugu of Andhra. However, evidences are there suggesting authority’s older origin. Later on Mahabharata was written in Telugu and therefore it dominates the language of royalty, Sanskrit. In Telangana region, the language of Telugu has a collection of borrowings from Persian Arabic language. Additionally Telugu absorb tatsamas from Sanskrit. Modern Telugu language consists of a diglossia since the formal and standardised version of language is greatly impacted by Sanskrit. However every day Telugu varies as it depends on societal status and region.
Though, it is usual to write and read consonants with an inferred 'a' vowel sound. When consonants unite with other vowel signs, the vowel part is indicated orthographically using signs known as vowel “maatras”. The script in Telugu is written from left direction or side to right and even inhabits simple and characters that are complex in a sequence. In nature, the script is syllabic. The basic units of writing are syllables. Since the numeral of probable syllables is very bulky, syllables are made up of basic units, like vowels and consonants. Consonants are supposed to be untainted consonants, without any vowel sound in them. Consonants in clusters of consonant take up a shape that is very distinct from the some other shapes. The vowel shapes are also dissimilar from the equivalent vowels shapes. Conventionally, in handwriting, the words in Telugu were not moved by places. Modern punctuation (semicolon, full stop, colons, etc.) were put forward with the coming on of print.
Telugu alphabet consists of three vowel modifiers, 41 consonants, 60 symbols and 16 vowels. It can bring out the complete range of phonetics in Sanskrit without giving away any texts originality. Also it has made its letters communicative and of every sounds and this is the reason it has to make use of momentous borrowings from Tamil, Sanskrit and Hindustani. Sanskrit and Telugu alphabets are very similar to each other and have complete set of letters.