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Maharashtra Upper Wardha Dam
Upper Wardha Dam is known for its straightness in earth filling due to its gravity power. In the small district of Maharashtra state called Amravati, a Godavari river flows to which the Wardha River pay its tributary as a part of it. The water from this dam is used for multipurpose activities such as for drinking water, for irrigation, for generating the hydropower etc. According to the famous love story of Nala and Damayanti in the mythology of Hindu, this dam also comes to known by the name Nala Damayanti Sagar. Upper Wardha Dam act as the lifeline to the people of Amravatiand the other districts situated with it. This dam is well known for the supply of water to the industries located and to supply the water for drinking.
It is known that the Wardha River flows to give the tributary to the river Godavari. This dam has been spread over an area of 785m (2575 ft) in altitude which is a large area.
It covers almost half the portion of Multai Plateau in Satpura range which is located in the small district of Madhya Pradesh. Wardha River flows in the districts of Madhya Pradesh and after covering the distance of 32km, it has entered into the state of Maharashtra at a place nearer to Satpura Range. It used to cover almost half of the Wardha district from its North and remaining from the west side. Wardha River later on joins the Wainganga River ater covering the distance of 528 km (328 mi). The combination of both the rivers is known as the Pranhita. Pranhita covers the Godavari River, Erai and many more from its left side which give the tributary from the left side and the river like Penganga used to give tributary from the right side.
Government has opened this project for about 8km away which is far away from Morshi to the east side and a distance of 56km from the small town of Amravati. It is calculated that river has a catchments area of about 4,302 km sq (1,661 sq mi).
A catchment area of river Wardha from its upper side has been affected by the origination of monsoon from the Bay of Bengal. Floods are a common thing in this area.
There is an occurrence of Cyclones during the month of August and even the month September which causes an area of low pressure for one or two days in the climatic condition of Bay of Bengal. Due to the cyclones, a rainfall is caused which cover almost a portion of catchment area by its intense flood water. According to the Weather report it is said that flood has been the common situation in the area of Wardha River. The drainage system of this type of catchment area is in a fan type structured with a catchment area of about 4,302 km sq (1,661 sq mi). There is a vast difference in the parameter of different factors which are severally affecting the working of the project. It is measured that near about 840 mm of rainfall received in this area on an annual period. The catchment area mainly receives more than 95% of rainfall at the month duration of June-September. There is an inflow of 783 million cubic m in the upper range of Wardha reservoir.
Upper Wardha dam broadly divided into the two sections; First section is located at the centre side of having spillway which includes the functioning of the dams due to its long earthening power.
It is observed that each spillway of this dam measure about 46.2 m (152 ft) in height and in length it measures 268 m (879 ft). Each spillway has two flank of height 36.62 m (120.1 ft) and 5,920 m (19420 ft) in length. It has the content capacity of about 6500 million cubic and the storage capacity of about 786,480,000 cubic metres. Dam has received the dead storage capacity of 171,690,000cubic metres. In order to discharge the water of flood from the dam, 13 radical gates are constructed to pass the water of 19,457 m3 (687,100 cuft)/s.
The area of about 9,748 m (24,090 acres) is covered under the Full Reservoir Level which is of size 342.50 m (1,123.7 ft) for the reservoir. There are 24 village of Amravati are covered under the submergence of the reservoir which in turn affect the 3000 families (11,817 people) who worked as the farmer and fishermen. Due to the less compensation provided to them for resettling of their life, they are still seeking for the more compensation.
The project has been formed with the objective of providing the water for irrigation purpose with 95 km (59 mi) in length to irrigate the land to the right side of canal and 42.4 km (26.3 mi) in length to the left side of the canal in order to carry the water of the dam to the field. It is observed that 70,169 ha (173,390 acres) of land is only get irrigated out of the area sanctioned for the irrigation of 75,080 ha (185,500 acres) which includes gross command area of size 116,970 ha (289,000 acres) and there are other areas which are sanctioned under this like Culturable Command area measure about 93,603 ha (231,300 acres) in size which cover half of the Amravati district and Wardha too. It is found that there is a presence of black Cotton Soil in the area covered under Command Land. There are many crops which are grown in command area due to the presence of Black cotton Soil are ground nut, jowar, tur etc. The process of canal keep on continues even in the years when it receives less inflow. A model has been created with the certain guidelines to determine the demand of irrigation on a monthly basis. This model is called by the name of ‘’General Algorithm’’ which later represent a report which states that the facility of irrigation is increased with the increment in the demand of irrigation. The main aim of the project is to maintain the level of irrigation at the first phase of the monsoon which is known as the end of the supply of water in a year and even it maintain maximum capacity during the starting of the monsoon season.
The source of water supply to the Amravati town and Wardha has available through the reservoir named as Upeer Wardha Reservoir with the supplementing of source from where the earlier supply used to be done. A well known town of Amravati district known by the name of Warud town of about an area of 85 mi (137 km) which is flourishing town received the supply of water. This town is deciding to merge with the Upper Wardha system of reservoir for the storage of water and for the supply too. The earlier source from where the Warud town has received the water was from Shekhdari River. It is the major source for the town. There is a supplementation in order to meet the requirement of near about 34,500 population in the year of 2011 and it is estimated that it will feed 34500 population in the coming years mainly say within 2026 with the speed to provide water 4,974,000 litres in a day. There is also the supply of water for the industrial used too. The cost of another plant set up in the district of M.P for the same purpose is US $18 million.
The reservoir is constructed in order to control the level of flood n the town of Amravati. The water from the reservoir is used in such a way that it regulates the level of flood. A well structured gate has been designed to let the flood water to pass in a systematic manner to the downstream. There is installation of the instrument which is in the appearance of having gauging device which is ultrasonic and its functioning is depend on the Genetic Algorithm. The process of this system is having the link with the system of management which ingulge with the technique of "RS-232 digital connection" which serve its performance in data measurement and convert the level of gauge into the figures measured against volume
Melghat Tiger Reserve
Melghat Tiger Reserve is considered to be one of the famous tiger reserve. It is the nine tiger reserve located. It is the reserve which lies in the Amrative and Wardha district from its northern side. It is one of the attraction points for the tourist department of Maharashtra. In the year of 1974, this tiger reserve got its existence. This reserve cover most of the area of the region known by Vidarbha range, one of the ranges of satpura region having an area about 1677 sq. km. Gugamal National Park, on of the main part of the reserve spread over an area of 361.28 sq. km. This reserve having an area about 788.28 sq. km. considered to be the portion of the reserve as a buffer area is known by the name Melghat Tiger Sanctuary. This reserve is consist of forest which is of deciduous type having the no. of species say 41 species in mammal category, a no. of species of birds say 250 andwith many more other category of species.
Teak, ain and many more other kind of Flora has attracted the no. tourist toward its. There are no. of trees species too (90) accompanied by Shrubs (66 species), herbs (320), grass (99), climbers (56) and many more.
Shri Ambadevi Temple is the temple situated at the centre point of the state. It is said that this is the temple where people used to worship goddess Ambadevi. The hindu believers and the saints are used to worship goddess Ambadevi. According to the hindu mythology, it is said that the Rukmini who is going to marry Shishupal had arrived this temple a day before her marriage.
A large no. of worshippers and the tourists are usedto arrive this temple mainly at Dussehra. This temple seems to be more beautiful at the Navratri time and people used to celebrate this festival with great enthusiasm. A fair is organized by the community of the temple for enjoyment to the tourist.
Gavilgarh Fort is the fort located in the small town of Amravati district named as Chikhaldara in the state of Maharashtra. The height of the Fort is measured to be around 1103m, which was constructed near 300 years back. It is the part of Melghat Tiger Project. It is found that it has a fort made up of mud by the Gavalis in the hills. At the time of 1425, the king of Baharmani dynasty had announced to construct the new fort.